What is cloning?
Making a clone in the laboratory is more difficult.
How to artificially make a clone:
Remove the genetic material of the egg, so that it becomes an empty shell.
Extract the DNA from the skin cell and put this DNA into the egg.
Give the egg an electric shock to stimulate this DNA to reprogramme. This turns it back into a form of DNA that can grow into any cell type and develop into an embryo.
The original adult cell can then develop into an embryo.
In reproductive cloning, the embryo is implanted in a uterus where it may grow into a whole organism. This has been carried out with animal embryos. The most famous cloned animal is ‘Dolly’ the sheep. Most attempts at reproductive cloning have been unsuccessful.
In therapeutic cloning, the embryo is not placed in the uterus. After five days of growth, stem cells are retrieved from the embryo. The embryo does not develop into a complete organism but its cells are grown in the lab.